"CHALUKYA / SOLANKI" DYNASTY

 
LOCATION: Gujarat/Deccan (Southern India) RELIGION: Hindu
DYNASTY: Chalukya / Solanki (Badami and Kalyani) ANNEXATION: 1189

SHORT HISTORY: The Chalukya (Solanki) were several South Indian dynasties that ruled in the Deccan. They claimed descent from Pulakesin I (reigned 543-566), who established himself at Badami (in Bijapur). The Early Chalukyas (Solankis) held power in northern Karnataka from the 6th cent. until 757, and were rivals to the Palavas. Vengi (in East Andhra Pradesh) became the center of the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, which ruled there from 624 until the 11th cent., surviving the fall of the Early Chalukyas (Solankis) in Badami. The Late Chalukyas (Solankis) gained ascendancy in the Deccan c.973, centered at Kalyani. The history of the Kalyani Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom was largely one of war with the Cholas and defense against the incursions of the Turks and Arabs who were plundering North India. The kingdom broke up in 1189. Rulers were...

EARLY CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Deccan (South India) From 543 to 747

  • Raja PULAKESIN I 543/566, founded Vatapi (modern Badami in Bijapur district of Karnataka state) and made it his capital. His sons extended the boundaries of the Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom.
  • Raja KIRTIVARMAN I 566/597
  • Raja MANGLESH 597/608
  • Raja PULAKESIN II 608/642, was the greatest ruler of the Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty. He consolidated his authority in Maharashtra and conquered large parts of the Deccan. He clashed successfully with the Pallava empire in Tamil Nadu, and also conquered the Cheras and the Pandyas. In 609 (624?), he appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy of Vengi, who subsequently declared his independence and established the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) Empire. His greatest achievement was his victory against Raja Harshvardhan, Uttarapatheshvara (Lord of the North), in 620, around this time he received the title of Dakshinapatheshvara (Lord of the South), however, he was defeated and killed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman in 642. His capital Vatapi was completely destroyed, he married and had issue. He died 642.
    • Raja VIKRAMADITYA I (qv)
    • Raja KUBJA VISHNUVARDHANA (see below)
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA I (642) 655/680, also as great a ruler as his father, he renewed the struggle against the Pallavas and recovered the former glory of the Chalukyas (Solankis), although the clashes with the Pallava Empire continued until Vikramaditya II won a comprehensive victory against the Pallavas in 740. 
  • Raja VINAYADITYA 680/696 
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA 696/733
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA II (son) 733/745, won a comprehensive victory against the Pallavas in 740.
  • Raja KIRTI VARMAN II 745/746 (757), was overthrown by a chief named Dantidurga of the Rashtrakutas.
    INTERREGNUM 757 / 848, the Deccan under Muslim rule, Chalukya (Solanki) rule continues at Vengi.
EASTERN CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Vengi 624/1075. This branch of the Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami is referred to as the "Eastern Chalukyas (Solankis)" to the historians. Pulakesin II, the renowned ruler of Chalukyas (Solankis) conquered Vengi (near Eluru) in 624 and installed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana on the throne. They ruled at first from Pistapura, then from Vengi and later from Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). In 1189, the Empire succumbed to the Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra and the Yadavas of Yadugiri. 
  • Raja KUBJA VISHNUVARDHANA 624/641, initially installed as Viceroy by his brother, he declared himself independent and expanded his dominions which now contained Srikakulam in the north and Nellore in the south. 
  • Raja JAYASIMHA I (son) 641/673
  • ........
  • Raja MANGI YUVARAJA 681/705, then followed a period of unrest characterised by family feuds and weak rulers. In the meanwhile, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed ousted Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami. The weak rulers of Vengi had to meet the challenge of the Rashtrakutas, who overran their kingdom more than once. 
  • ......
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA III 848/892, died 892.
  • Raja BHIMA I (nephew) 892/921, built a temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama.
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA IV 
  • Raja AMMA I [VIJAYADITYA V](son), compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded a dynasty.
  • Raja AMMA II [VIJAYADITYA VI], fl.945
  • Raja DANARNAVA, married and had issue. He died 973.
    • Raja SAKTIVARMAN I (qv)
    • Raja VIMALADITYA (qv) 
  • Raja JATA CHODA BHIMA of Pedakallu in Kurnool district, who ruled 973/1000.
  • Raja SAKTIVARMAN I
  • Raja VIMALADITYA, fled from the Kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola King Rajaraja I (985/1016), Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava. In this war, Jata Choda Bhima was killed and Vengi passed into the hands of Rajaraja. This was not liked by Satyasraya, an early ruler of the Western Chalukyas (Solankis) of Kalyani. As a result of this, Vengi became the bone of contention between the Cholas and Chalukyas (Solankis) of Kalyani to the west, married Rani Kundavai, daughter of King RAJARAJA I Chola.
  • ......
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA VII -/1075, the rule of Vijayaditya VII, the last king of the eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, witnessed an invasion of the Vengi kingdom by the Chedi King of Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva in 1073. Vijayaditya VII lost his kingdom and with his death in 1075 the eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty came to an end.
WESTERN CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Gujarat from 973 to 1189
  • Raja TAILAPA II [Ahavamalla] 973/997, founder of the later Western (Kalyani) Chalukyas (Solankis), he consolidated his realm with the help of the early Chalukya (Solanki) family and with the help of Kadambas and recovered much of the lost territories of earlier Chalukyas (Solankis). He overthrew the Rashtrakutas and recovered most of the Chalukya (Solanki) empire, except for Gujarat. Kalyani was the capital of the empire, and the Chalukyas (Solankis) of this period are known as the Kalyani Chalukyas (Solankis).
  • Raja SATYASRAYA [Irivabedanga] (son) 997/1008, he won a victory against King Rajaraja Chola who had invaded Satyasraya's region. 
  • Raja DASAVARMAN 1008
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA I 1008/1014
  • Raja AYYANA 1014/1015
  • Raja JAYASIMHA I 1015/1042, he repelled invasions from the North and the southern invasion from the Chola King Rajendra.  He moved his capital from Malkhed to Kalyana (in Bidar).
  • Raja JAGADHEKAMALLA, he is stated to have defeated Bhoja the ruler of Malava confederacy and Chedi King.
  • Raja SOMESVARA I (son) 1042/1068, also known as Ahavamalla, defeated the Chola king Rajadhiraja Chola in 1052, 
  • Raja SOMESVARA II (son) 1068/1076
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA II (brother), of Kalyana 1076/1127, conquered Cholas, Keralas, Ceylon, ... as an army leader of his brother, he received submission from the ruler of konkan, and soon marched against Vira Rajendra Chola, the latter sued for peace by giving his daughter to marry Vikramaditya. When Vira Rajendra died, Vikramaditya placed his brother-in-law named Adhi-Rajendra on the throne of Cholas. After his brother-in-law was killed, Vikramaditya was defeated by the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) king Jayasimha and was given with the governship of Bellary. Again in 1076, Vikramaditya took the help of Hoysala and ascended the throne as Vikramaditya VI.
  • Raja SOMESVARA III  1127/1138, was more interested in literary matters and allowed Vishnuvardhana Hoysala to take an opportunity to declare independence. 
  • Raja JAGADHEKAMALLA II 1138/1151, Hoysalas invaded the Chalukya (Solanki) territory. 
  • Raja TAILAPA III 1151/1164, he was captured by the Kakatiya invader Prola I and his commander-in-chief, Bijjala Kalachuri usurped the throne.
  • Raja BIJJALA KALACHURI 1164/1168, strengthened the position of his kingdom, which saw rapid succession after his reign. 
  • Raja SOMESVARA IV 1168/1177, the Chalukyas (Solankis) were able to recover their territory under the leadership of Somesvara IV, the son of Tailapa III. His suzerainty was acknowledged by the last Kalachuri ruler Singhana. He soon gained allegiance of Kadambas of both Goa and Banavasi, and Pandyas of Uchchangi. With the attack from the Hoysalas under Vira Ballala I and the Yadavas of Devagiri, the later Western Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty came to and end in about 1189.
  • Raja SANKAMA II 1177/1180 
  • Raja AHAVAMALLA 1180/1183 
  • Raja SINGHANA 1183/1184, ruled peacefully in succession.  
SOLANKI (Chalukya): Ruled in Gujarat 942 or 960/1244
  • Raja MULRAJA I 960/997, Solanki (Chalukya) prince of Kalyani, founded an independent dynasty, known as Chalukya of Anahilapataka or the Solanki dynasty. He is famous for building the great temple of Rudramahalya at Sidhpur.
  • Raja CHAMUNDARAJA (son) 997/1009
  • Raja VALLBARAJA (son) 1009 (for six months)
  • Raja DURLABHARAJ (brother) 1009/1024
  • Raja BHIMDEV I (nephew) 1024/1064
  • Raja KARANDEV 1064/1093
  • Raja JAISINGH 1093/1142
  • Raja KUMARPAL 1142/1172
  • Raja AJAYPAL 1172/1176
  • Raja MULRAJ II 1176/1178
  • Raja BHIMDEV II 1178/1241, married and had issue.
    • Raja MANGALDEV (qv)
    • Rao Lakshman Prashat, married and had issue.
      • Rao Veerhaval, married and had issue.
        • Rao Vyaghra Dev, married and had issue.
          • Rao Karandev
          • Rao Kandhar Dev, founder of Kasota.
          • Rao Keerti Dev, founder of Pitapur.
          • Rao Surat Dev, married and had issue.
            • Rao SHAKTIVAN, founder of the Princely State of Rewah [1499]
  • Raja TRIBHUVANPAL 1241/1244, last ruler of Gujarat of the Solanki dynasty, with authority passing to the related Vaghela rulers of Dholka.
  • Rao MANGALDEV 1244/1260 in Siddhpur Patan
  • Rao GANESH DEV 1260/1290, married and had issue.
    • Rao BHANU DEV (qv)
    • Rao BHISHAM DEV, founder of the ruling family of the Princely State of Lunawada [1295].
  • Rao BHANU DEV 1290
  • ......
  • Rao DEVRAJ SINGH 1430/1476, married and had issue.
    • Rao Jai Singh
    • Rao Ram Singh
    • Rao Amrat Dev, married the daughter of Raja Bariar Dev, and had issue.
      • Rao KESAR DEV, founder of the Mehsana Thikana family of Patan in Gujarat.
VAGHELA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Gujarat 1244/1304, this was a branch of the Solanki Kings, and initially ruled at Dholka.
  • Raja VISALA 1244/1262
  • Raja ARJUNA 1262/1275
  • Raja SARANGADEVA 1275/1297
  • Raja KARNADEVA 1297/1304, submitted to the Delhi Empire.



SOLANKI DYNASTY

 
Villages: ?? km2 Revenue: ??  Regnal Dates: 942-1244
State: Gujarat Dynasty: Solanki (Chalukya) Religion: Hindu
     

Predecessors and Short History: Rulers were...
 

              1.MULRAJA I
                    960/995 or 942/997
             2.CHAMUNDARAJA

              3.VALLBARAJA

            4.DURLABHARAJA ----- Unknown
                 1009/1021         |
                               5.BHIMA DEV I 
                                   | 1021/1063+
                               6.KARNA I [Karan Dev I]
                                   | 1063/1093
    7.SIDHRAJA JAISINH             |
             1093/1143+            |
                             8.KUMARAPALA ----- Unknown
                                    1143/1173      |
                                              9.AJAVAPALA

                          11.BHIMA DEV II ----- Unknown
                                 | died 1242       |
                          12.TRIBUVANPAL     10.MULRAJA II
                                    1242/1244




Chalukya (Solanki)

The Chalukya (Solanki) Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190.

Early History

The dynasty was established by Pulakesi I in 550. Pulakesi I took Vatapi (now known as Badami in Bijapur district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. His sons established the frontiers of his empire to extend over most of what is now the Indian state of Karnataka.

Pulakesi II

Pulakesi II, who ascended the throne in 608, is certainly the most famous and most recognized ruler of the Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty.

Pulakesi II started out consolidating his kingdom by conducting minor campaigns against the Alupas, Gangas and others. He clashed successfully with the Pallava empire in Tamil Nadu, and also conquered the Cheras and the Pandyas. In 609, he appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy of Vengi, who subsequently declared his independence and established the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) Empire.

His most famous military success came in c. 615, when he clashed with Harshavardhana, the famous ruler of Northern India, who already had the title Uttarapatheshvara (Lord of the North). Pulakesi II won the war and came to a treaty with Harshavardhana, a treaty which marked the Narmada river as the border between the Chalukya (Solanki) Empire and that of Harshavardhana. With this conquest, Pulakesi's control extended completely over Southern India, including Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. However, the war depleted the treasury sufficiently that Pulakesi stopped his expansionary campaigns. He received the title Dakshinapatheshvara (Lord of the South) at around the same time.

Pulakesi went on to exchange ambassadors with the Shah of Persia - his reception of the Persian ambassador is depicted in one of the paintings in the Ajanta caves. The Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang, who visited India in the 7th century, wrote admiringly of Pulakesi and his Empire.

The clashes with the Pallava empire continued intermittently during his rule. Pulakesi was finally defeated by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman in 642.

Re-Emergence and Decline

The Chalukya (Solanki) Empire was restored in 655 by Vikramaditya I; the clashes with the Pallava Empire continued until Vikramaditya II won a comprehensive victory against the Pallavas in 740. However, the Chalukya (Solanki) Empire was again overthrown in 750 by the Rashtrakutas.

During the 970s, Tailapa II, a scion the Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, overthrew the Rashtrakutas and recovered most of the Chalukya (Solanki) empire, except for Gujarat. Kalyani was the capital of the empire, and the Chalukyas (Solankis) of this period are known as the Kalyani Chalukyas (Solankis). This time around, the Chalukyas kept clashing intermittently with the Chola empire in Tamil Nadu. Someshvara I, also known as Ahavamalla, defeated the Chola king Rajadhiraja Chola in 1052. Vikramaditya VI (ruled 1076-1126), also known as Vikramanka, was the next famous ruler of the dynasty.

The Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty went into decline after Vikramanka's death. In 1190, the Empire succumbed to the Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra and the Yadavas of Yadugiri.

Legacy

The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya (Solanki) Dynasty is the architecture and art that they left. The rock-cut temples of Badami and Aihole, and the some of the celebrated paintings and sculptures of the Ellora and Ajanta caves are examples of the art that the Chalukya (Solanki) Empire patronized.




Chalukya (Solanki)

CHALUKYA (SOLANKI), the name of an Indian dynasty which ruled in the Deccan from A.D. 550 to 750 and again from 973 to 1190 in Gujarat. The Chalukyas (SOlankis) are Rajputs from the north who imposed their rule on the Dravidian inhabitants of the Deccan tableland. The dynasty was founded by a chief named Pulakesin I., who mastered the town of Vatapi (now Badami, in the Bijapur district) about 550. His sons extended their principality east and west; but the founder of the Chalukya (Solanki) greatness was his grandson Pulakesin II., who succeeded in 608 and proceeded to extend his rule at the expense of his neighbours. In 609 he established as his viceroy in Vengi his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana, who in 615 declared his independence and established the dynasty of Eastern Chalukyas (Solankis), which lasted till 1070. In 620 Pulakesin defeated Harsha, the powerful overlord of northern India, and established the Nerbudda as the boundary between the South and North. He also defeated in turn the Chola, Pandya and Kerala kings, and by 630 was beyond dispute the most powerful sovereign in the Deccan. In 642, however, his capital was taken and he himself killed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman. In 655 the Chalukya (Solanki) power was restored by Pulakesin's son Vikramaditya I.; but the struggle with the Pallavas continued until, in 740, Vikramaditya II. destroyed the Pallava capital. In 750 Vikramaditya's son, Kirtivarman Chalukya (Solanki), was overthrown by the Rashtrakutas.

In 973, Taila or Tailapa II. (d. 995), a scion of the royal Chalukya (Solanki) race, succeeded in overthrowing the Rashtrakuta king Kakka II., and in recovering all the ancient territory of the Chalukyas (Solankis) with the exception of Gujarat. He was the founder of the dynasty known as the Chalukyas (Soalnkis) of Kalyani. About A.D. 1000 a formidable invasion by the Chola king Rajaraja the Great was defeated, and in 1052 Somesvara I., or Ahamavalla (d. 1068), the founder of Kalyani, defeated and slew the Chola Rajadhiraja. The reign of Vikramaditya VI., or Vikramanka, which lasted from 1076 to 1126, formed another period of Chalukya (Solanki) greatness. Vikramanka's exploits against the Hoysala kings and others, celebrated by the poet Bilhana, were held to justify him in establishing a new era dating from his accession. With his death, however, the Chalukya (Solanki) power began to decline. In 1156 the commander-in-chief Bijjala (or Vijjana) Kalachurya revolted, and he and his sons held the kingdom till 1183. In this year Somesvara IV. Chalukya (Solanki) recovered part of his patrimony, only to succumb, about 1190, to the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra. Henceforth the Chalukya (Solanki) rajas ranked only as petty chiefs.

See J. F. Fleet, Kanarese Districts; Prof. R. G. Bhandarker, "Early History of the Deccan," in the Bombay Gazetteer (1896), vol. i. part ii.; Vincent A. Smith, Early Hist. of India (Oxford, 1908), pp. 382 ff.