"CHALUKYA / SOLANKI" DYNASTY
|LOCATION: Gujarat/Deccan (Southern
|DYNASTY: Chalukya / Solanki (Badami and Kalyani)
SHORT HISTORY: The Chalukya
(Solanki) were several
South Indian dynasties that ruled in the Deccan. They claimed descent
from Pulakesin I (reigned 543-566), who established himself at Badami
(in Bijapur). The Early Chalukyas (Solankis) held power in northern Karnataka from
the 6th cent. until 757, and were rivals to the Palavas. Vengi (in East
Andhra Pradesh) became the center of the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, which
ruled there from 624 until the 11th cent., surviving the fall of the
Early Chalukyas (Solankis) in Badami. The Late Chalukyas (Solankis) gained ascendancy in the
Deccan c.973, centered at Kalyani. The history of the Kalyani Chalukya
kingdom was largely one of war with the Cholas and defense against the
incursions of the Turks and Arabs who were plundering North India. The
kingdom broke up in 1189. Rulers were...
EARLY CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled
in Deccan (South India) From 543 to 747
EASTERN CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in
Vengi 624/1075. This branch of the Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami is referred to as
the "Eastern Chalukyas (Solankis)" to the historians. Pulakesin II, the renowned
ruler of Chalukyas (Solankis) conquered Vengi (near Eluru) in 624 and installed his
brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana on the throne. They
ruled at first from Pistapura, then from Vengi and later from
Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). In 1189, the Empire succumbed to the
Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra and the Yadavas of Yadugiri.
- Raja PULAKESIN I 543/566, founded Vatapi (modern Badami in
Bijapur district of Karnataka state) and made it his capital. His sons extended the
boundaries of the Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom.
- Raja KIRTIVARMAN I 566/597
- Raja MANGLESH 597/608
- Raja PULAKESIN II 608/642, was the greatest ruler of the
Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty. He consolidated his authority in Maharashtra and
conquered large parts of the Deccan. He clashed successfully with
the Pallava empire in Tamil Nadu, and also conquered the Cheras and
the Pandyas. In 609 (624?), he appointed his brother Kubja
Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy of Vengi, who subsequently declared
his independence and established the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) Empire. His
greatest achievement was his victory against Raja Harshvardhan,
Uttarapatheshvara (Lord of the North), in 620, around this time
he received the title of Dakshinapatheshvara (Lord of the
South), however, he was defeated and killed by the Pallava king
Narasimhavarman in 642. His capital Vatapi was completely destroyed,
he married and had issue. He died 642.
- Raja VIKRAMADITYA I (qv)
- Raja KUBJA VISHNUVARDHANA (see below)
- Raja VIKRAMADITYA I (642) 655/680, also as great a ruler as his
father, he renewed the struggle against the Pallavas and recovered
the former glory of the Chalukyas (Solankis), although the clashes with the Pallava Empire continued until Vikramaditya II won a comprehensive
victory against the Pallavas in 740.
- Raja VINAYADITYA 680/696
- Raja VIJAYADITYA 696/733
- Raja VIKRAMADITYA II (son) 733/745, won a comprehensive victory
against the Pallavas in 740.
- Raja KIRTI VARMAN II 745/746 (757), was overthrown by a chief
named Dantidurga of the Rashtrakutas.
INTERREGNUM 757 / 848, the Deccan
under Muslim rule, Chalukya (Solanki) rule continues at Vengi.
WESTERN CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in
Gujarat from 973 to 1189
- Raja KUBJA VISHNUVARDHANA 624/641, initially installed as
Viceroy by his brother, he declared himself independent and expanded
his dominions which now contained Srikakulam in the north and
Nellore in the south.
- Raja JAYASIMHA I (son) 641/673
- Raja MANGI YUVARAJA 681/705, then followed a period of unrest
characterised by family feuds and weak rulers. In the meanwhile, the
Rashtrakutas of Malkhed ousted Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami. The weak rulers
of Vengi had to meet the challenge of the Rashtrakutas, who overran
their kingdom more than once.
- Raja VIJAYADITYA III 848/892, died 892.
- Raja BHIMA I (nephew) 892/921, built a
temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama.
- Raja VIJAYADITYA IV
- Raja AMMA I [VIJAYADITYA V](son),
compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded
- Raja AMMA II [VIJAYADITYA VI], fl.945
- Raja DANARNAVA, married and had issue. He died 973.
- Raja SAKTIVARMAN I (qv)
- Raja VIMALADITYA (qv)
- Raja JATA CHODA BHIMA of Pedakallu in
Kurnool district, who ruled 973/1000.
- Raja SAKTIVARMAN I
- Raja VIMALADITYA, fled from the Kingdom
and took refuge in the court of the Chola King Rajaraja I
(985/1016), Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of
Danarnava. In this war, Jata Choda Bhima was killed and Vengi passed
into the hands of Rajaraja. This was not liked by Satyasraya, an
early ruler of the Western Chalukyas (Solankis) of Kalyani. As a result of
this, Vengi became the bone of contention between the Cholas and
Chalukyas (Solankis) of Kalyani to the west, married Rani Kundavai, daughter of
King RAJARAJA I Chola.
- Raja VIJAYADITYA VII -/1075, the rule of
Vijayaditya VII, the last king of the eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty,
witnessed an invasion of the Vengi kingdom by the Chedi King of
Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva in 1073. Vijayaditya VII lost his kingdom and
with his death in 1075 the eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty came to an end.
Ruled in Gujarat 942 or 960/1244
- Raja TAILAPA II [Ahavamalla] 973/997, founder of the later
Western (Kalyani) Chalukyas (Solankis), he consolidated his realm with the help
of the early Chalukya (Solanki) family and with the help of Kadambas and
recovered much of the lost territories of earlier Chalukyas (Solankis). He
overthrew the Rashtrakutas and recovered most of the Chalukya
empire, except for Gujarat. Kalyani was the capital of the empire,
and the Chalukyas (Solankis) of this period are known as the Kalyani
- Raja SATYASRAYA [Irivabedanga] (son) 997/1008, he won a victory
against King Rajaraja Chola who had invaded Satyasraya's region.
- Raja DASAVARMAN 1008
- Raja VIKRAMADITYA I 1008/1014
- Raja AYYANA 1014/1015
- Raja JAYASIMHA I 1015/1042, he repelled invasions from the North
and the southern invasion from the Chola King Rajendra. He moved
his capital from Malkhed to Kalyana (in Bidar).
- Raja JAGADHEKAMALLA, he is stated to have defeated Bhoja the
ruler of Malava confederacy and Chedi King.
- Raja SOMESVARA I (son) 1042/1068, also known as Ahavamalla,
defeated the Chola king Rajadhiraja Chola in 1052,
- Raja SOMESVARA II (son) 1068/1076
- Raja VIKRAMADITYA II (brother), of Kalyana 1076/1127, conquered
Cholas, Keralas, Ceylon, ... as an army leader of his brother, he
received submission from the ruler of konkan, and soon marched
against Vira Rajendra Chola, the latter sued for peace by giving his
daughter to marry Vikramaditya. When Vira Rajendra died,
Vikramaditya placed his brother-in-law named Adhi-Rajendra on the
throne of Cholas. After his brother-in-law was killed, Vikramaditya
was defeated by the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) king Jayasimha and was given
with the governship of Bellary. Again in 1076, Vikramaditya took the
help of Hoysala and ascended the throne as Vikramaditya VI.
- Raja SOMESVARA III 1127/1138, was more interested in literary
matters and allowed Vishnuvardhana Hoysala to take an opportunity to
- Raja JAGADHEKAMALLA II 1138/1151, Hoysalas invaded the Chalukya
- Raja TAILAPA III 1151/1164, he was captured by the Kakatiya
invader Prola I and his commander-in-chief, Bijjala Kalachuri
usurped the throne.
- Raja BIJJALA KALACHURI 1164/1168, strengthened the position of
his kingdom, which saw rapid succession after his reign.
- Raja SOMESVARA IV 1168/1177, the Chalukyas (Solankis) were able to recover
their territory under the leadership of Somesvara IV, the son of
Tailapa III. His suzerainty was acknowledged by the last Kalachuri
ruler Singhana. He soon gained allegiance of Kadambas of both Goa
and Banavasi, and Pandyas of Uchchangi. With the attack from the
Hoysalas under Vira Ballala I and the Yadavas of Devagiri, the later
Western Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty came to and end in about 1189.
- Raja SANKAMA II 1177/1180
- Raja AHAVAMALLA 1180/1183
- Raja SINGHANA 1183/1184, ruled peacefully in succession.
- Raja MULRAJA I 960/997, Solanki (Chalukya) prince of Kalyani, founded an
independent dynasty, known as Chalukya of Anahilapataka or the
Solanki dynasty. He is famous for building the great temple of Rudramahalya at Sidhpur.
- Raja CHAMUNDARAJA (son) 997/1009
- Raja VALLBARAJA (son) 1009 (for six months)
- Raja DURLABHARAJ (brother) 1009/1024
- Raja BHIMDEV I (nephew) 1024/1064
- Raja KARANDEV 1064/1093
- Raja JAISINGH 1093/1142
- Raja KUMARPAL 1142/1172
- Raja AJAYPAL 1172/1176
- Raja MULRAJ II 1176/1178
- Raja BHIMDEV II 1178/1241, married and had issue.
- Raja MANGALDEV (qv)
- Rao Lakshman Prashat, married and had issue.
- Rao Veerhaval, married and had issue.
- Rao Vyaghra Dev, married and had issue.
- Rao Karandev
- Rao Kandhar Dev, founder of Kasota.
- Rao Keerti Dev, founder of Pitapur.
- Rao Surat Dev, married and had issue.
- Rao SHAKTIVAN, founder of the Princely State
of Rewah 
- Raja TRIBHUVANPAL 1241/1244, last ruler of Gujarat of the
Solanki dynasty, with authority passing to the related Vaghela
rulers of Dholka.
VAGHELA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Gujarat
1244/1304, this was a branch of the Solanki Kings, and initially ruled
- Rao MANGALDEV 1244/1260 in Siddhpur Patan
- Rao GANESH DEV 1260/1290, married and had issue.
- Rao BHANU DEV (qv)
- Rao BHISHAM DEV, founder of the ruling family of the
Princely State of Lunawada .
- Rao BHANU DEV 1290
- Rao DEVRAJ SINGH 1430/1476, married and had issue.
- Rao Jai Singh
- Rao Ram Singh
- Rao Amrat Dev, married the daughter of Raja Bariar Dev, and
- Rao KESAR DEV, founder of the Mehsana Thikana family of Patan in Gujarat.
- Raja VISALA 1244/1262
- Raja ARJUNA 1262/1275
- Raja SARANGADEVA 1275/1297
- Raja KARNADEVA 1297/1304, submitted to the Delhi Empire.
|Villages: ?? km2
||Regnal Dates: 942-1244
||Dynasty: Solanki (Chalukya)
Predecessors and Short History: Rulers
960/995 or 942/997
5.BHIMA DEV I
6.KARNA I [Karan Dev I]
8.KUMARAPALA ----- Unknown
11.BHIMA DEV II ----- Unknown
The Chalukya (Solanki) Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of
southern India between 550 and 750, and again between
973 and 1190.
The dynasty was established by Pulakesi I in
550. Pulakesi I took Vatapi (now known as Badami in
Bijapur district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. His
sons established the frontiers of his empire to extend over most
of what is now the Indian state of Karnataka.
Pulakesi II, who ascended the throne in
608, is certainly the most famous and most recognized ruler of the
Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty.
Pulakesi II started out consolidating his kingdom by
conducting minor campaigns against the Alupas, Gangas
and others. He clashed successfully with the Pallava empire in
Tamil Nadu, and also conquered the Cheras and the Pandyas. In
609, he appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy of
Vengi, who subsequently declared his independence and
established the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) Empire.
His most famous military success came in c. 615,
when he clashed with Harshavardhana, the famous ruler of Northern
India, who already had the title Uttarapatheshvara (Lord of the
Pulakesi II won the war and came to a treaty with
Harshavardhana, a treaty which marked the Narmada
river as the border between the Chalukya (Solanki) Empire and that of Harshavardhana. With this conquest, Pulakesi's control extended
completely over Southern India, including Maharashtra and parts of
Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. However, the war depleted the treasury sufficiently
that Pulakesi stopped his expansionary campaigns. He received
the title Dakshinapatheshvara (Lord of the South) at
around the same time.
Pulakesi went on to exchange ambassadors with the Shah of
Persia - his reception of the Persian ambassador is depicted
in one of the paintings in the Ajanta caves. The Chinese traveller
Hsuan Tsang, who visited India in the 7th century, wrote admiringly
of Pulakesi and his Empire.
The clashes with the Pallava empire continued intermittently during his rule.
Pulakesi was finally defeated by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman in 642.
Re-Emergence and Decline
The Chalukya (Solanki) Empire was restored in 655 by Vikramaditya I; the clashes with the Pallava
Empire continued until Vikramaditya II won a comprehensive victory against the
Pallavas in 740. However, the Chalukya (Solanki) Empire was again overthrown in 750
by the Rashtrakutas.
During the 970s, Tailapa II, a scion the Chalukya
(Solanki) dynasty, overthrew the Rashtrakutas and recovered most of the
Chalukya (Solanki) empire, except for
Gujarat. Kalyani was the capital of the empire, and
the Chalukyas (Solankis) of this period are known as the Kalyani
Chalukyas (Solankis). This time around, the Chalukyas kept clashing
intermittently with the Chola empire in Tamil Nadu. Someshvara I, also known as Ahavamalla,
defeated the Chola king Rajadhiraja Chola in 1052. Vikramaditya VI (ruled 1076-1126),
also known as Vikramanka, was the next famous ruler of the dynasty.
The Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty went into decline after Vikramanka's death. In
1190, the Empire succumbed to the Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra and the Yadavas of Yadugiri.
The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya (Solanki) Dynasty is the
architecture and art that they left. The rock-cut temples of Badami and Aihole, and the some of the celebrated
paintings and sculptures of the Ellora and
Ajanta caves are examples of the art that the Chalukya
CHALUKYA (SOLANKI), the name of an Indian dynasty which
ruled in the Deccan from A.D. 550 to 750 and again from 973 to
1190 in Gujarat. The Chalukyas (SOlankis) are Rajputs from the north who
imposed their rule on the Dravidian inhabitants of the
Deccan tableland. The dynasty
was founded by a chief named Pulakesin I., who mastered
the town of Vatapi (now Badami, in the Bijapur district) about 550.
His sons extended their
principality east and west; but the founder of the
Chalukya (Solanki) greatness was his grandson Pulakesin II., who
succeeded in 608 and proceeded to extend his rule at the
expense of his neighbours. In 609 he established as his
viceroy in Vengi his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana,
who in 615 declared his independence and established the
dynasty of Eastern Chalukyas (Solankis), which lasted till 1070. In
620 Pulakesin defeated Harsha, the powerful overlord of northern
India, and established the
Nerbudda as the boundary between the South and
North. He also defeated in turn the Chola, Pandya and
Kerala kings, and by 630 was beyond dispute the most
powerful sovereign in the Deccan. In 642, however, his
capital was taken and he himself killed by the Pallava
king Narasimhavarman. In 655 the Chalukya (Solanki) power was
restored by Pulakesin's son
Vikramaditya I.; but the struggle with the Pallavas
continued until, in 740, Vikramaditya II. destroyed the
Pallava capital. In 750 Vikramaditya's son, Kirtivarman
Chalukya (Solanki), was overthrown by the Rashtrakutas.
In 973, Taila or Tailapa II. (d. 995), a
scion of the royal Chalukya (Solanki) race, succeeded in
overthrowing the Rashtrakuta king Kakka II., and in recovering all
the ancient territory of the Chalukyas (Solankis) with the
Gujarat. He was the founder of the dynasty known as
the Chalukyas (Soalnkis) of Kalyani. About A.D. 1000 a formidable
invasion by the Chola king Rajaraja the Great was
defeated, and in 1052 Somesvara I., or Ahamavalla (d.
1068), the founder of Kalyani, defeated and slew the
Chola Rajadhiraja. The reign of Vikramaditya VI., or
Vikramanka, which lasted from 1076 to 1126, formed
another period of Chalukya (Solanki) greatness. Vikramanka's
exploits against the Hoysala kings and others,
celebrated by the poet Bilhana, were held to justify him
in establishing a new era dating from his accession.
With his death, however, the Chalukya (Solanki) power began to
decline. In 1156 the commander-in-chief Bijjala (or
Vijjana) Kalachurya revolted, and he and his sons held
the kingdom till 1183. In this year Somesvara IV.
Chalukya (Solanki) recovered part of his patrimony, only to
succumb, about 1190, to the Yadavas of Devagiri and the
Hoysalas of Dorasamudra. Henceforth the Chalukya
ranked only as petty chiefs.
See J. F. Fleet,
Kanarese Districts; Prof. R. G. Bhandarker,
"Early History of the Deccan," in the
Bombay Gazetteer (1896), vol. i. part ii.;
Vincent A. Smith, Early Hist. of India
(Oxford, 1908), pp. 382 ff.